In “The Advent of Literary Dystopia,” Carter Kaplan emphasizes a poignant theme of the novel, free will. A Clockwork Orange explores the idea of control and Kaplan suggests: “treating nature and human beings as machines does not work”. Kaplan continues to examine how “it is one of the ironies of the world that, rather than becoming more predictable and more controllable, life become in fact less predictable when subjected to programming”. In the novel, the Priest, during the testing phase, declares that: “He [Alex] has no real choice, has he? Self-interest, fear of physical pain, drove him to that grotesque act of self-abasement”. This makes the Ludovico technique a problematic solution for ridding an individual of their criminal tendencies. Kaplan also comments on the portrayal of Alex in the film and the novel. Kaplan observes that “the Alex of the film is even more monstrous then the Alex of the novel, precisely because the actor is so attractive”. The dystopian society is dreary, with various scenes littered with graffiti and rumble and the Alex of the film stands out. A key difference between the medium of film and literature is casting, an attractive actor as a villain can influence the audience. This comparison of Alex in both mediums is illuminating, however, like the other critiques it overlooks the importance of the Ludovico technique and visual perception. The effects of the programming do not stick to Alex but the important question of why this happens is overlooked.